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 Glossary

 
What do the following expressions and abbreviations mean at the Michael Koch GmbH?

 

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

[A]

 

AB : Order confirmation: You receive this from us after every order.
Dimensions : We supply the individual modules of our wire-wound resistors in three sizes with continuous power rating 100W 110x80x15 mm (LxWxH), 200W 216x80x15 mm and 240 or 400W 216x80x30 mm cases, each measured without wiring.
Spacing bolts : Specially produced screws with internal thread in the screw head, which, for its part, has the optimal height for heat conduction between two resistors.
Heat shields : We recommend installing heat shields (product code P110 or P216) to minimise thermal interaction.
AK : Marking on combinations of wire-wound resistors for heat shields and mounting brackets on the exit side for the flex
AL : Marking on combinations of wire-wound resistors for heat shields and mounting brackets on the long side
Aluminium casing : Our wire-wound resistors: Thermally optimised, mechanically solid, individually anodised - and many more important refinements. Only at KOCH!
AM : Marking on combinations of wire-wound resistors for heat shields and mounting brackets on the narrow side
Ampere : Unit for electric current
Quotation : We always supply written quotations from our internal order processing system. Our quotations are binding for four weeks.
Connection technology : What kind of electrical connection technology do you need? From simple conductor sleeves to flat pin bushings to terminal boxes solutions: Tell us your requirements!
Drive engineering : KOCH was founded based on its experience with electrical drive engineering. Use the products specially developed for electrical drive engineering requirements!
Application : The application defines the resistor - its continuous power and the resistance value - and its immediate environment - the electrical and mechanical connections. For both, we don't leave you on your own (unless, of course, you want us to!): Based on your information, we will propose a complete solution, optimised both technically and economically.
Application-specific resistor combination : We offer resistor units, which are electrically (and also mechanically, if you wish) tailored to the specific features of your machine.
Approval : Almost all KOCH resistors have the cCSAus (210040) and cURus (E233422) approval, I.e. they meet the requirements of the important North American UL and CSA standards.
Work : The electrical work (W) is greater the greater the input electrical power is and the longer the power consumption lasts. The electrical work is measured in kilowatt hours. Formula: W = P x t
Work cycle : We understand this as the constantly repeated operation cycle. We call the necessary time for this the cycle time. As a rule, a time period of 120 seconds is taken for comparability of a brake resistor's power input. Generally, it goes without saying, that several cycles will occur within this time period.
Order confirmation : For every order, we send a written confirmation, usually by fax. We reserve the right to make changes without notice. Conditions for foreign orders are available on request.

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[B]

Fix resistance : see brake resistance
BAS : Base board for assembly of wire-wound resistor combinations
Base construction : Our resistors are supplied with leads as standard.
BASxxx... : Combination of wire-wound resistors on base board; in final assembly completely wired and protection class IP 20; wiring in terminal box possible - then IP 65
Construction types : We supply two different ultra-modern brake resistor construction types: 1. Wire-wound resistors of the higher protection class IP 65 in aluminium cases 2. PTC resistors - withstand voltage up to 1,100 Volts
Switch size : We supply the individual modules of our wire-wound resistors in three switch sizes, namely with continuous power rating 100W 110x80x15 mm (LxWxH), 200W 216x80x15 mm and 240 or 400W 216x80x30 mm cases, each measured without wiring.
Fixing elements : We also supply the appropriate mounting aids for our resistors, from spacing bolts to cases - please ask for details!
Load capacity : The rule for 1% on-time in a cycle time of 120 seconds is 35 times nominal or continuous power rating. However, there are exceptions in our product range, which can do more; for example, the BWD600.
Brake chopper : Brake transistor: Surge suppressor in D.C. link
Brake resistor : Electrical resistor for use in the D.C. link of a power converter for conversion into heat of the electrical energy previously converted from the kinetic energy of the connected electrical machine.
BWD : Wire-wound resistor, basic version, with leads, lengths ca. 510 ± 40mm
BWG : Wire-wound resistor with shielded cable, lengths from 750 mm (according to customer requirements)
BWK : Metal case for the assembly of wire-wound resistor combinations
BWKxxx... : Wire-wound resistors combination in metal case; on final assembly completely wired in terminal box and protection class IP 65
BWS : Wire-wound resistor with leads and flat pin bushing or other connectors (according to customer requirements)
BWT : Wire-wound resistor with terminal
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[C]

cCSAus : Product approval according to the CSA and UL standards. All our products except the BWD1000 series conform to the relevant standards and have been approved. The master contract number is 210040.
CAD drawing : On request, you can obtain 2D CAD drawings as dxf files to support your construction work.
CSA : Canadian Standards Association

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[D]

Datasheet : Our specifications are genuine.
Continuous power rating : The PD continuous power rating, like the nominal power rating, is defined as the continuous power obtained from the resistor without reduction of its service life at an ambient temperature of 70°C and a maximum surface temperature of 250°C. The KOCH resistors achieve their specified PD by free convection, that is without additional cooling of any kind.
DEK :
Thr Dynamic Energy Combination, our combination of DES and DEV in a single device. So the advantages of both devices can be used.
DES :
Our Dynamic Energy Storage converses the redundant braking energy and recognizes automatically when the energy has to be pumped back.
DEV :
Our Dynamic Energy Supply helps to bridge grid interruptions to ensure a steady process. Inform you about the fields of applications of the DEV and its expansion modules.
decentralised drive engineering : The clear trend in electrical drive engineering. And with our high protection class IP65 resistors, one less thing for you to worry about.
Diagram : Especially relevant are the graphs for performance/on-time, performance/surface temperature, and for PTC brake resistors resistance/temperature in addition.
DIN ISO 9001:2008 : Standard for a quality management system The production of the individual modules is certified. At KOCH we have been certified in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 since 28/06/2002.
Direct Mail : We keep our customers and interested parties informed. We introduce new products or keep you up to date on the newest developments in personalised letters. We are very happy to receive your feedback!
dxf-Format : You can obtain drawings from us in this format for your mechanical construction. Please ask!

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[E]

EU-Eco-Audit : Standard for an environment management system
Intrinsic safety : This definitely does not mean intrinsic safety in the sense of explosion protection! The term is used in a business-specific definition referring to the base electrode of the resistors. It means, that KOCH resistors are destroyed, in the event of constant overload, in such a manner, that they do not show any harmful electrical, thermal, and mechanical reactions.
Wire-wound resistors intrinsic safety : In the event of constant overload (for instance, brake transistor (brake chopper) short-circuit) there is - no short-circuit - no internal isolation breakdown - no fire - no explosion - no melting of the aluminium case
PTC-based resistors intrinsic safety : PTC resistors are safe due to their dynamic behaviour: the higher the temperature, the higher the resistance value. Once a certain temperature is reached, the resistance value is so high, that no more energy input occurs - the PTC resistor protects itself.
Power-on time : Period within a cycle time, during which the resistance energy must be converted into heat. Usually, the power-on time in relation to the cycle time is stated as a percentage. In use as a brake resistor, the value is constantly less than 50%.
Electrical power : The electrical power (P) is calculated from the voltage multiplied by the current. Formula: P = U x I (Unit Watt)
Eloxal : Our resistor cases are individually anodised after the mechanical processing and thereby satisfy the highest demands.
Email : Contact us at: mail@koch-mk.de! We look forward to hearing from you!
EMAS : Environmental Management and Auditing System At KOCH we have been certified since 31/07/2002.
Energy : Energy is produced by work. If matter is lifted to a certain height, work is necessary for this. In addition, the matter has a corresponding energy. This is called potential energy. Thus energy is work capacity. Energy has the same symbol as work. Formula: W = Fs x S

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[F]

Fabrikle : Our site in Ubstadt-Weiher. We South Germans use this word for a small factory.
Flexibility : Do you need a resistor urgently? Do you need an application-specific resistor? Do you need application-specific accessories? Call us on: +497251/962620 !

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[G]

Cases : We differentiate between two types: 1. Our resistor casings themselves: These are optimally designed for the thermal requirements. At the same time, they are mechanically very robust, so that they can also absorb mechanical forces well. 2. Cases containing resistors or resistor combinations: We construct these specifically for your purposes, if you cannot find the appropriate case in our current product range.
shielded cable : We supply a wire-wound resistor with shielded cable in our BWG series. You can specify the length over 750mm. The cable is a special design with PTFT isolation, thus temperature-resistant up to the specified maximum surface temperature of the resistor.
Gearing : Essential element in the drive chain, whose retarding efficiency is important for the design of the brake resistor.
Guarantee : 12 months from delivery
Direct Current voltage : Our wire-wound resistors are designed for continuous operation and a direct current voltage of 1,000 Volts. 850 Volts apply to cURus-approved resistors.

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[H]

Fixing bracket : Purpose-built in our selection of wire-wound resistors matched metal brackets (aluminium or high-grade steel (on request) for the long or narrow sides of the resistor.
Help : Call us: +497251/962620

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[I]

Impulse power : The impulse power, PI, is defined as the short-time power absorbed by the resistor without reduction of the service life at an ambient temperature of 70°C and a maximum surface temperature of 250°C. The KOCH resistors achieve their specified PI with free convection, that is without additional cooling of any kind. The limiting factor is the energy absorption capacity of the resistance wire. By virtue of the construction of the KOCH resistors, the heat is slowly systematically diffused to the surface. Short impulses therefore often cause a slight increase in the surface temperature.
Inductance : By means of a coil on the AC voltage, the induced voltage reduces the current consumption. This is greater the quicker the magnetic field changes and the larger the induction (Symbol L) of the coil is. This induction increases with the square of the number of windings and in addition is dependent on the coil dimensions as well as on the properties of the core. The unit of induction is the Henry (H). Formula: [L] = Vs / A
Internet presence : Our Website has several names: You will find us at www.bremsenergie.de and www.brakeenergy.com. Please use these sites and give us feedback on how we can satisfy your needs even better via our Website.
IP20 : Protection class standard for our PTC resistors: 2 = protection against foreign bodies with diameters exceeding 12 mm, 0 = no protection at all against water penetration
IP65 : Protection class standard for our BWx: 6 = complete protection against entry of dust, 5 = Protection against low-pressure water flows from all directions -limited penetration is allowed
Isolation : Our resistors are internally so isolated, that in permitted use and on destruction due to constant overload, internal isolation breakdown is not possible. The wire-wound resistors have an isolation resistance of RISO > 100 MOhm Vmess = 1kV DC and are voltage-tested with VISO > 4kV (AC; f = 50 Hz; t = 1 min).

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[J]

Joule : Unit for energy (Watt second)

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[K]

K : Marking for mounting brackets on the cable exit side in wire-wound resistors combinations
KES : The Dynamic Energy Storage KES for single-phase drive controllers converses the redundant braking energy and recognizes automatically when the energy has to be pumped back.
KEV : The Dynamic Energy Supply KEV for single-phase drive controllers is a short-term-UPS and helps to bridge grid interruptions to ensure a steady process.
Combination : …we call this a mechanically and/or electrically connected unit of several individual resistors. The specific advantages of the individual resistors are maintained, the brake power increases according to the number of individual modules.
Construction : We develop ideas for installing our resistors in your application optimally and implement these in durable constructions. We take care of the realisation and, after your approval, for a smooth supply of the series production.
Internal isolation breakdown : Even for continuous overload (for instance, short-circuit of the brake transistor (brake chopper)) there is no internal isolation breakdown in KOCH resistors. Thus, it can be assumed there is no threat to life and limb from KOCH resistors.
Kraichgau : Ubstadt is located approximately 25 km South of Heidelberg, directly at the crossover between the Rheintal and the Kraichgau Hügelland. It is worth a visit to the rural Kraichgau for its fields, woods, and vineyards!
KTS :
KTS is our control cabinet solution which we offer in the case that our Energy Storage Units do not fit in the already existing control cabinet of the machine.
Short-circuit : Even for continuous overload (for instance, short-circuit of the brake transistor (brake chopper)) there is no short-circuit in KOCH resistors, instead the resistance value tends towards infinity and stays there. It can be assumed there is no risk to other electronic devices from KOCH resistors.

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[L]

L : Marking for mounting brackets on the long side of wire-wound resistors in combinations.
Power resistance : see brake resistance
Delivery conditions : EX WORKS. We reserve the right to make changes. Terms for foreign orders on request.
Delivery note : Every delivery is accompanied by a delivery note. This is useful for possible notifications of defects.
Delivery reliability : The delivery date promised in the order confirmation is our strictest target. We will stick to it!
Delivery time : The usual delivery time is seven working days. The delivery time is usually much shorter, within hours if urgent, for resistors with no or very little assembly work. We reserve the right to make changes. Terms for foreign orders on request.
LS : Delivery note

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[M]

M : Marking for mounting brackets on the narrow side of wire-wound resistors in combinations.
Machine builders : This is what we call our end customers. Companies, which build machines, and need the optimum drive engineering with the best peripheral equipment for this. A brake resistor appears to be a very unimportant part. Yet it does not function without it, even with the use of feedback units.
Exhibitions participation : Since 2001 we have been exhibiting at the PCIM and SPS/IPC/DRIVES (both in Nürnberg). We visit exhibitions to see your presentations and to identify other opportunities for collaboration.
Assembly plant : Our small factory in Ubstadt is an assembly plant, where warehouse, finishing, and assembly are combined. In this way, we achieve the high flexibility, which you can use to your advantage!
Mounting bracket : Purpose-built in our selection of wire-wound resistors matched metal brackets (aluminium or high-grade steel (on request) for the long or narrow sides of the resistor.

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[N]

NEV :
The NEV is used to supply the 24 V DC circuit with mains independent electrical voltage. For this purpose, the NEV makes use of the energy of a supply unit, namely the dynamic energy supply DEV or the dynamic energy storage combination DEK.
Nominal power : The nominal power, PN, like the continuous power, is defined as the continuous power obtained from the resistor without reduction of its service life at an ambient temperature of 70°C and a maximum surface temperature of 250°C. The KOCH resistors achieve their specified PN by free convection, that is without additional cooling of any kind.
New customer : We are pleased, when you decide on our products, if you decide on a collaboration with us! You will not regret this decision. However, you will ask yourself why you did not make this decision earlier!

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[O]

Surface temperature : Our designs always take account of a maximum surface temperature of 250°C provided this is allowed based on the wire load. The PTC resistors reach a maximum of 160°C.
Ohm's Law : The current, I, is directly proportional to the voltage, U, and inversely proportional to the resistance, R. The relation between current, voltage, and resistance is called Ohm's Law.
Ohm : Unit of the electrical resistance value with the symbol R. We can supply you with a wide range of resistance values immediately from stock! For large quantities it is sensible to make an agreement in the run-up to placing an order.
Ohm values : In order to achieve the particular resistance value with the default properties of the individual resistor, KOCH uses special resistance wire strengths according to the resistance value and does not lengthen or shorten the existing equal-strength wires.

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[P]

P/ED-Diagram : Power / power-on time diagram: shows the power (in Watts) against the relative power-on time (as % of the cycle time (usually 120s)). We have chosen the double logarithmic representation, in order to make clear the linear load limits at ambient temperatures of 70°C and 20°C.
Specification : If you have suggestions for product modifications or new development, don't hesitate, instead please tell us, even if only in outline, by sending email to: mail@koch-mk.de
PTC : Ceramic element with positive temperature coefficients, I.e. as the temperature increases so does the resistance value
PTC brake resistor : PTC brake resistor, which was further developed by us into a true brake resistor for use in the DC link of the power converter, whereby, in particular, the withstand voltage could be increased up to 1,100 volts direct-current voltage.

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[Q]

QMS 9001:2008: Quality management system: At Koch we have been certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 since 28/06/2002.

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[R]

R/T-Diagramm : Resistance / temperature diagram: shows the resistance values of the PTC brake resistors (dynamic resistors) against the temperature. For wire-wound resistors we are dealing with fixed resistances, i.e. the resistance value against temperature only changes within very small limits.
Frames : Power converter-specific, very robust metal frames for space-saving and secure mounting of one or more resistors underneath / behind the power converter. You tell us the dimensions, we will take care of the implementation!
Invoice : Is raised on the day of delivery and sent together with the product. We reserve the right to make changes. Terms for foreign orders on request.

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[S]

Protection class : Degree of protection against penetration by foreign bodies as well as against people touching dangerous parts and the degree of protection against water penetration (Standard IEC 529) Structure: IPxy (IP = International Protection, x = 1st digit, y = 2nd digit) First Digit: Degree of protection against penetration by foreign bodies as well as against people touching dangerous parts (test conditions): 0 No protection at all 1 Protection against foreign bodies with diameters exceeding 50 mm 2 Protection against foreign bodies with diameters exceeding 12 mm 3 Protection against foreign bodies with diameters exceeding 2.5 mm 4 Protection against foreign bodies with diameters exceeding 1 mm 5 Protection against (harmless) build-up of dust 6 Complete protection against dust penetration Second Digit: Degree of protection against water penetration (test conditions): 0 No protection at all 1 Protection against vertically-falling dripping water 2 Protection against vertically-falling dripping water, when the case is inclined up to 15° 3 Protection against spray within an angle of 60° to the vertical 4 Protection against shower water from all directions - limited penetration (no harmful effect) 5 Protection against low-pressure jet of water from all directions - limited penetration permitted 6 Protection against strong jet of water from all directions - limited penetration allowed 7 Protection against the consequences of temporary dipping in water 8 Protection against the consequences of continuous submersion in water
Self-extinguishing : During the construction of our resistors, we have strictly paid attention, that the destruction of the resistor by continuous overload cannot result in fires. If the resistance wire overloads and burns out, an outbreak of flames is nothing to be worried about.
Safety : The decisive property of our resistors and origin of our business: "Safe resistors for electrical drive engineering"!
Discount : For payment received within 14 calendar days of the invoice date, we guarantee a discount of 2%. The exact payment amounts with and without discount together with the payment dates are shown on the invoice. We reserve the right to make changes. Terms for foreign orders on request.
Special construction : The hearts of our resistors are taboo. Changing them would affect the special properties of KOCH resistors. Otherwise we can discuss every modification. A solution can then be realised at the double, if the requirements relate to areas not directly affecting the resistance module.
Voltage : The electrical voltage states how much electrical energy per load unit is necessary for the load disconnection or load transport. The electrical voltage has the Volt unit. Formula: U = R x I
Voltage strength : The KOCH resistors have been developed and constructed particularly for use in the DC link of power converters. The wire-wound resistors are authorised for up to 1,000 V DC, or up to 850 V DC for cURus approval. The PTC resistors, depending on the Ohm value, are authorised for up to 1,100 V DC.
Carriers : We use the carriers of your choice. If you do not express a preference, we send parcels and pallets with reliable carriers.
Standard resistor : Our resistors are supplied with leads as standard.
Current : Electric current only flows in a closed electrical circuit. An electrical circuit consists of at least a power source (battery or generator), consumer load, and outward and return conductors. The electric current has heat, magnetic, and chemical effects.

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[T]

Teflon : The leads used in KOCH resistors are of the highest quality and isolated with PTFT = Teflon. In this way, their heat capacity corresponds to the specified maximum surface temperature of 250°C.
Temperature monitoring : For wire-wound resistors, we supply an external temperature switch as the solution. For PTC resistors, a temperature monitor, given the type of construction, is fundamentally not necessary. But even for our wire-wound resistors, we do not think a temperature monitor is necessary in most cases on the basis of the costs / usage situation (wiring costs etc.).
Thermal time constant : The product of resistance and capacity is called time constant.
Electrical tolerance : Our wire-wound resistors have a resistance values tolerance of + 5%. Smaller tolerances, subject to extra cost, are possible. PTC resistors as a condition of manufacture have a tolerance range in the resistance value of + 35%. However, based on experience, and depending on the batch the actual tolerance is only < + 10%.
Mechanical tolerance : The mechanical tolerances of our resistors correspond to the usual ones. The cases change correspondingly in accordance with the thermal load. However, the consequences of the heat expansion are negligible in the specified case of operation.

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[U]

Ubstadt-Weiher : Cosmopolitan community on the boundary of the Kraichgau, roughly 25 km South of Heidelberg
UL : Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Converter : When we talk about converters, we understand these as including every type of frequency converter for electrical drive engineering for 4Q operation, with internal or even external brake transistor (brake chopper). Servo controllers are also included.
Converter-specific : The brake resistors are already converter-specific selectable by power and Ohm value. Further we supply many mechanical adjustment possibilities. So, from the converter and resistor, a mechanical unit can also be achieved.
UMS : Environment Management System
Substructure frames : Converter-specific, very robust metal frames for space-saving and secure mounting of one or several resistors underneath / behind the converter. You give us the dimensions, we take care of the implementation!

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[V]

Packaging : The standard packaging has been selected, so that the products survive the journey to the customer without damage. If this should ever not be the case, please advise us immediately. In addition to the standard, you also have the possibility of individualised (single) packaging. We will take care of your requirements! We will include the packaging costs in the invoice.
Packing material : We ensure that packing material is recyclable. We also place this requirement on our suppliers for the purpose of an environmentally-aware economy.
Despatch : According to your wishes, quantity /weight, and destination we look for the optimum transporter. We include the transport costs in the invoice. We reserve the right to make changes. Terms for foreign orders on request.
Volt : Unit for the electrical voltage.
Prepayment : Due to negative experiences in the past, we can only accept prepaid orders from new customers. We reserve the right to make changes. Terms for foreign orders on request.

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[W]

 

Watt : Unit for the electrical power.
Heat energy : Absorbed and dissipated heat energy is often called heat quantity. The heat quantity for the same material is proportional to not only the change in temperature but also to the material mass. In addition, heat absorption and heat dissipation are dependent on the type of the material.
Website : Our Website has several names: You will find us at www.bremsenergie.de and www.brakeenergy.com. Please use these sites and give us feedback on how we can satisfy your needs even better via our Website.
Resistance : 1.) Resistor component (fixed resistors - variable resistors) 2.) Property, to oppose the current with a resistance. Electrical resistance has the symbol R and the unit Ohm. Formula: R = U/I
Resistance value : In order to achieve the particular resistance value with the default properties of the individual resistor, KOCH uses special resistance wire strengths according to the resistance value and does not lengthen or shorten the existing equal-strength wires.
Reseller : This is what we call converter manufacturers, who supply and sell our resistors as peripheral parts together with their converters.
Bracket : Purpose-built in our selection of wire-wound resistors matched metal brackets (aluminium or high-grade steel (on request) for the long or narrow sides of the resistor.

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[X]


 

[Y]


 

[Z]

Payment terms : Prepaid for new customers, otherwise 14 days 2%, 30 days net, plus costs of the credit transfer for foreign orders. We reserve the right to make changes. Terms for foreign orders on request.
Time for payment : The maximum time for payment is 30 calendar days net. We reserve the right to make changes. Terms for foreign orders on request.
DC link : Direct Current link of the power converter. Brake energy takes care of increasing the voltage. Too high a voltage destroys the electronic components. Therefore, at a specified voltage level, the energy is diverted through a brake transistor / brake chopper to a brake resistor.
Cycle operation : A brake resistor is loaded in cycles - it would be an electro-heating if continuously loaded. As a rule, S3 is the case of operation for a brake resistor.
Cycle time : Time period a constantly self-repeating processing cycle. As a rule, a time of 120s is used for comparing the power absorption of a brake resistor.

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